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Egypt 11, U.s. 8, Russia 6, U.n. 6, Iraq 4, India 4, Washington 4, Susan Collins 4, Nation 3, Syrians 3, United Nations 3, David Brooks 3, Mohammed Morsi 3, Afghanistan 3, Maine 3, Margaret Warner 3, Alabama 3, Morsi 2, John Boehner 2, Hosni Mubarak 2,
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  PBS    PBS News Hour    News/Business.   
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    September 10, 2013
    3:00 - 4:01pm PDT  

captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> ifill: president obama spent his day on capitol hill today, arguing for both diplomatic and military steps to force syria to relinquish its chemical weapons. >> woodruff: if a diplomatic solution were found, it could avert military action. we talk with republican senator susan collins of maine. >> ifill: and mark shields and david brooks preview tonight's primetime presidential address on syria. >> woodruff: while chief foreign affairs correspondent margaret warner reports from cairo, on the growing split among egyptians as the political crisis continues there. >> ifill: good evening. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. those are just some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour.
>> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, working to solve social and environmental problems at home and around the world. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you.
thank you. >> woodruff: our lead story tonight: the president made ready for a double-edged assignment tonight, to address the nation with the case for a military strike on syria, and at the same time leave the door open to a diplomatic solution that could avoid it-- all this as russia pushed efforts for syria to surrender control of its chemical arsenal, and the u.s. insisted on verification. we'll have more on syria, right after the other news of the day. >> ifill: the day's news on syria was a tonic for wall street. stocks rallied as it appeared diplomacy was overtaking the possibility of military action. the dow jones industrial average gained nearly 128 points to close at 15,191. the nasdaq rose almost 23 points to close at 3729. this is primary day in new york city, with voters choosing party nominees for mayor and other
races. in the mayor's contest, democratic front-runner bill de blasio hopes to get 40% of the vote-- enough to avoid a runoff. among the republicans, former transit authority head joe lhota holds a commanding lead. the ultimate winner will succeed mayor michael bloomberg, who's held the office for 12 years. the u.s. justice department has released hundreds of classified documents that depict misuse of domestic surveillance in 2009. they show incidents in which the national security agency went too far, and then misled a secret oversight court about the violations. to halt the collection of phone data. so the liberty group civil liberties groups sued to force release of the material. in india, a court convicted four men today in the fatal gang rape of a young woman last year. the incident triggered worldwide condemnation and reforms in india's sexual violence laws. we have a report from john sparks of independent television news.
. >> not long after sun viez, a police van swept past the cameras and into a district court in delhi. inside the vehicle, four men wearing hoods, four men accused of a crime that shocked and deeply shamed the people of india. outside of the gate, an angry crowd formed up. >> we want justice. they have come to hear the judge's verdict and deliver an impromptu one of their own. >> a death sentence for everyone convicted of rain, said this woman. five men and one juvenile were charged with torturing, rain raping and murdering a 23-year-old physio therapy student last november. police say the gang attacked the woman and a male friend after their boarded this bus. the men beat them with an iron
bar, gang raped the woman and threw them off the moving vehicle. the 23-year-old died two weeks later. word of the attack quickly spread and young, middle-class protectors took to the streets. violence against women in india, no longer something they were prepared to ignore. politicians scrambled to respond, increasing penalties and stepping up fast track courts for rape. the murder of the 23-year-old student was the first case to be heard. a lawyer brought news of the verdict -- >> all four were found guilty on all charges and tomorrow a sentencing hearing will begin, he said. >> the juvenile barely given a year sentence. another gang member took his own life in jail. >> >> ifill: the four convicted men now face the possibility of death by hanging, the maximum penalty for their crimes.
east of san francisco made significant progress overnight. the state park is now at least 45 percent contained. it it started on sunday and has since blackened 5 miles of woodlands and 5 homes are still threatened. americans are facing a growing crisis in cancer care. that warning, issued today by the institute of medicine, found demand is growing just as the work force of cancer specialists is shrinking. at the same time, costs continue to rise. the report called for patients to get more involved in picking their care and their caregivers. an apparent outbreak of food poisoning-- possibly linked to chobani greek yogurt-- has spread to nearly 90 people, that according to the u.s. food and drug administration. chobani had already announced a voluntary recall of 35 varieties of its yogurt that may have been contaminated by mold. the f.d.a. is now working with the company to speed up that process.
congress today awarded its highest civilian honor to four young black girls killed in a church bombing in alabama nearly 50 years ago. in a capitol ceremony, the congressional gold medal was given posthumously to addie mae collins, carole robertson, cynthia wesley, and denise mcnair. their deaths helped spur the passage of the civil rights act of 1964 and the voting rights act a year later. alabama congresswoman terri sewell paid tribute today. >> the names of the four little girls will never appear on the wall here in congress, their legacy truly paved the way for me and so many others to serve here in congress. i know that the journey that i now take, as alabama's first black congress woman would not be possible had it not been for the journey of addie, carol, denise and cynthia.
>> >> ifill: past recipients of the medal include rosa parks, reverend martin luther king, jr., and his wife, coretta scott king. still ahead on the newshour, three takes on syria, from republican senator susan collins, syrian americans with family impacted by war, and former u.n. weapons inspector, charles duelfer; plus, margaret warner in egypt; jeffrey brown on the photography of war; and shields and brooks preview president obama's address to the nation. >> woodruff: now, we delve fully into the syria story and today's diplomatic dance over the assad regime's chemical weapons. ray suarez begins our coverage. >> were waiting for that proposal. but we're not waiting for long. >> at a house hearing, secretary of state john kerry put russia on notice about its plan to put syria's poison gas under
international control. >> it has to be swift, it has to be real, it has to be verifiable. i cannot be a delaying tactic. >> kerry demand add binding u.n. resolution with tough consequences. in moscow, russian president vladimir putin is russia is serious but the u.s. is making things difficult. >> undoubtedly all of this makes sense and can work only in the event that we hear that the american side and those who support the u.s. in this sense reject the use of force. because it's hard to make any country, syria or another country, inside other state in the world, disarm on a unilateral basis if an attack is being prepared against it. >> the french foreign minister said his government was drafting a resolution that calls for verifying russia's plan. >> we think and we know that syria has a thousand tons of chemical weapons and that's enormous. those weapons are obviously very difficult to locate and destroy.
and it's obviously not the russians and the syrians that can be trusted to do this alone. there must be international verification. >> and it was clear, the negotiations won't be easy. the u.n. security council first scheduled an emergency closed-door session on syria, then canceled it, saying the russians had withdrawn their request. amid the diplomatic back and forth, the killing continued inside syria. amateur video posted online showed new shelling by government forces in parts of damascus. and back in washington, the president's team, including secretary kerry, pursued its request for congress to authorize military force against syria. >> a lot of people say that nothing focuses the mind like the prospect of a hanging: well, it's the credible threat of force that has been on the table for these last weeks that has, for the first time, brought this regime to even acknowledge that they have a chemical
weapons arsenal. >> mr. obama made his own visit to capitol hill this afternoon to lobby senators from both parties. >> senate aides told "the news hour" the president backings a delay to allow the democratic process to play out and that is senators seem supportive of waiting. at the same time, the associated press reported a majority of senators were opposed to military action or leaning against it. in the house, it was 6-1 against. the senate's top republican, mitch mcconnell became the first congressional leader to oppose the resolution. >> all interventions are not created equal. and this proposal just does not stand up. >> senate majority leader harry reed postponed a test vote on the resolution that had been set for tomorrow. he insisted today the delay will not be indefinite. >> the st. patrick will give the international discussions time to play out but not unlimited time. >> on the house side, speaker
john boehner said he is taking a wait-and-see approach in light of the diplomatic efforts. >> clearly dip diplomacy is always a better outcome than military action. but i will say i'm somewhat skeptical of those that are involved in the diplomatic discussion today. >> in his interview with "the news hour" yesterday, the president acknowledged he faces an uphill climb with lawmakers, as well as a war-weary public. >> i don't think that i'm going to convince the overwhelming majority of the american people to take any kind of military action but i believe i can make a very strong case to congress as well as the american people about why we can't leave our children a world in which other children are being subjected to nerve gas. >> the president will take that case directly to the public this evening when he addresses the nation at 9:00 p.m. eastern
time. >> ifill: maine's republican senator susan collins attended the lunch meeting with the president today, and a dinner at vice president joe biden's home sunday night, as the administration courted her vote. she joins me now. >> unfortunately we seem not to the have senator collins audio. can you hear me, senator? >> i can now. >> ok. >> i was not getting anything for a few minutes back. >> well, thank you for joining us. we just heard house speaker john boehner talk about the choice between diplomacy and military action. is that what you see as the choice right now? >> i do. and initially what the administration was presenting was a choice between a military strike that was an act of war and doing nothing. and it troubles me that we were ignoring the possibility of a diplomatic solution. the last couple of days have put
a diplomatic solution on the table, and i believe it should be a aggressively pursued. >> senator, do you think that russia is a worthy ally in that pursuit? >> you know, i understand those who say we can't trust the russians. but the fact is, that it is in the russian's own self-interest to diffuse this crises. so i believe that we should allow some time for this to play out, to see if the russians who are, after all, the chief allies for assad can, indeed, cause him to turn over his stockpile of chemical weapons to the united nations or some other international organization. without russian weapons, money and support, assad would be gone. so it is the russians that have
the ability to influence the syrian regina way that really no other country does except for arena and written is a very unlikely partner. >> the outstanding questions i have heard today senator is whether the united nations is the correct venue for this and whether it's even ep forcible if you can find all of the chemical weapons, move them somewhere they they could be monitored and control and even if it could happen. >> i'm not saying this would be easy but certainly it is preferrable to launching a military strike on a country that has not attacked us. certainly, it is preferable for us to try to get the chemical stockpiles, which may be the largest in the world, out of syria so that it can no longer be used to harm and kill
innocent civilians. and i would say that it has been done before. libya did give up some of its nuclear capability. so we have precedent for the united nations being able to take control of stockpiles of dangerous weapons. >> senator collins, you have been -- you have gotten the president's best argument on this idea of a military strike, both in lunch, dinner with the vice president and lunch on capitol hill today. what is the your biggest objection to the idea of a military strike, if you had decided you are objecting, that is? >> my biggest concern is that we will be dragged into yet another war in the middle east and become entangled in a protracted, dangerous, and ugly civil war, where it's very difficult to sortout who are the good guys, particularly at this
point, when we have the terrorist group hezbollah helping the sass regime -- the assad regime and the two groups that are affiliated with al qaeda. i don't think that this would end with one military strike. and i'm very we'rey of the united states being dragged in to a protracted civil war in syria. >> do you know, having heard the president's case for war and the president's case for diplomacy that he had this in his hip pocket for a while, that he all along had been using the military strike option as a way of pressuring congress and pressuring russia? >> i actually don't. because the very first conference call that we had on this issue during labor day weekend, when secretary kerry
and national security advisor susan rice was briefing us, there was no discussion of anything other than a military strike, and i do not think that the administration was actively pursuing other diplomatic means behind the scenes. now i'm not sure of that but certainly initially, they were not. i think now they genuinely are. and i certainly hope that they will be successful and it will avert any further discussion of a military strike. >> if they genuinely are now do you think it's because of the pressure and the reluctance the american people and senate and house have brought to bare? >> i do. i think the president's plan initially was to launch and strike without even coming to congress for approval. when it was evidenced that that would have created an uproar
from the american people and from members of congress, he decided to go to us as he should under the constitution. that in turn allowed for more time for these other alternatives to be put forth by the russians. >> you don't think that the president has been talking about this all along, as he said, with vladimir putin, then? >> i don't mean to doubt the president if he says he has had discussions with mr. putin. he may well have had during the recent conference. but certainly the public debate that was being presented to congress and indeed the actual resignation that the president sent to congress simply supported a military strike and it was extremely broad in its escape and there was no language
in it about, first, trying to pursue a diplomatic solution. >> senator susan collins, republican of maine, thank you for joining us. >> thank you. >> >> woodruff: now, another perspective on the conflict in syria. the pbs newshour online team recently visited with three syrian americans living in the washington area. they talked about the challenges of witnessing their homeland's civil war from abroad and how they think the conflict should be resolved. here are some excerpts from those conversations. >> i'm from searia and my mother is from damascus. my mother sent me to damascus and they for a long time were insulated from some of the events and they still until today have not left and that's mostly, you know, my grandmother's decision, you sort of held the family homestead. we spent a lot of our lives building this home. and i'm not about to become a refugee in some country for an
unforeseeable amount of time, depending on foreign organizations, you know, for my bread and butter. it hurts me that there's very little we can do except send money. and at times you just want to be able to remove them from that situation. so you sort of have to put up with the reality as it is and just talk to each other and share photos and try to distract yourself from the fact that, god forbid, it mate be the last time that you speak to them again. >> it's hard because in one sense you're not living through it at all, but knowing that you have family who is being affected by it, knowing that there are places that you went to when you were younger and may not be able to go to ever again or if you do go to them, they will be destroyed, that takes a toll on you and i think it's something that a lot of syrian americans are probably going through. >> i go back and forth a lot. i personally am very against u.s. military strikes. i don't think that will -- i think that will inflame the
situation. once we get to a points the regime falls, and it will, it just depends on how much longer and how many people have to die. but these people that tina amongst all odds to come out and protest, to take control of the country, because those people continue to go out despite all of the horror. they could just sit at home and say, no, we're not going to take this, but they don't. they give us meet the most hope. >> i was born in the second largest city in syria at that time. direct military intervention is crippling the regime and taking it completely out of the picture then i am for it but if it's going to take a few missiles here and there and destroy some assets in the country and the regime survive, then i'm against it. yeah, a couple of weeks ago, the neighborhood, one of my sisters
lives, and the area was shelled and five buildings crumbled down and at least 50 people died in that area. and i thought maybe my sister was one of them. so i called and fortunately she was arrived but her heart was broken because it was close by, it was people she knew, it was people i knew, and there's nothing we could do. >> can you imagine how researching it is for these people thousands of miles away and there's nothing they can do but watch. >> and you talk to the voices of those affected by it not just those in the line of fire but people miles and miles away. it's very important to hear the voices as well as the lawmakers. >> good point. with chemical weapons under
international control. for that we turn to jeffrey brown. >> it's a stockpile >> brown: it's a stockpile that's believed to be the largest in the world. a pre-war map compiled by the monterrey institute shows where syria's chemical weapons and production facilities were thought to be, spread through the western half of the country. definitive information on the current situation is much harder to come by. to walk us through all this we turn again to charles duelfer, a top u.n. weapons inspector in iraq during the 1990s. after the u.s. invasion in 2003, he led the c.i.a.'s iraq survey group, which continued to look for weapons of mass destruction. he's author of "hide and seek: the search for truth in iraq." >> thank you. >> first the question, what does it mean to hand over chemical weapons? what happens physically? who does it? >> well, the process would be, presumably, set out by it security council where they put the burden of proof and the burden of doing these things on the syrian government. so they would constitute a group of weapons inspectors but the
burden of showing where the weapons were and accounting for them would be on the syrian government. they would show the weapon inspectors where they were, how many they had and the weapons inspectors would have to verify the veracity of that. >> if that's the case and based on experience, what kind of ground rules, because you think about what could go wrong and how to do it right, what kind of ground rules would you like to set? >> we have done this successfully in the case of iraq. in 1999 the weapons inspectors were far more successful than they knew. at that point in time we laid out very strict rules by which the weapons inspectors had access to locations, to documents, to people. it was a weapons inspectors that could select the location they would inspect. it was the obligation of the country, in this case damascus to consolidate the weapons at certain known locations and provide an inventory of what they had, and then the weapons inspectors would either destroy them or guard them or account
for them or put them under lock and key, perhaps in some kind of a bunker that would have inernational supervision. >> and how easy would it be for the syrians to either move or hide these things if they wanted to make it difficult? >> well, this is the challenge of being a weapons inspector. the syrians would give them a statement of their inventory. certainly the weapons inspectors would count the agent that they had. but by access to other syrians, people in the military they may be able to interview, they could test the veracity of that and they could go to other countries that may have data. for example, countries which may have sold scud missiles to the syrians and they could provide data on how much they provided to the syrians. there's a number of angles the weapons inspectors could pursue. >> can you ever be sure that you've not them all? how would you know? >> well we were never sure in the case of iraq and it turned out we did know a hell of a love
more than we thought. but certainly under the current circumstances with syria we can get it down better than it is now and by that whole process syria will lose the advantage of having these chemical weapons. it's a major step now that they even acknowledge they have such stocks. this is a sizable achievement by the russians. in the case of iraq you had a cat & mouse game. is it possible or likely that something like this would happen in sear yar? >> we will have to see, and the weapons inspectors would have to take that as one of the possibilities and they would have to plan their inspections in certain ways so they can take at from the possibility they're still hiding something. nevertheless you can reduce the uncertainty, reduce the uncertainty a fair amount by accounting for emissions, by accounting for the production runs, the production equipment. certainly you can get rid of the bulk of the syrian weapons capability. >> another big difference here clearly would be that, i mean,
from iraq to now, this would betating place in the midst of a civil war, there would be fighting all around presumably? >> and establishing the ground rules for the weapons inspectors to go into the country, the burden of security would have to be on the government. but i have to say that presumably, these are the most valuable and secure things in syria that the army and the government would have them in areas they could protect and therefore they should be able to lead the weapons inspectors to those sites or bring the weapons inspectors to the sites so hey could do what a i have to do. >> how long would this take, thinking about the president giving this talk tonight, how long does something like this take to verify and to get the weapons? >> well, the first step is to negotiate the terms under which the weapons inspectors are going to operate. and that's probably with the rate of the u.n. doing it, it will be weeks rather than days. >> weeks? >> weeks. >> just to negotiate how this is going to work? >> yeah.
what access, who gets to pick the sites and there's a fundamental point does this happen under the threat of a military attack? in other words is it a co-versive element or as russia says, the threat of force has to be taken off the table first? i think that's salable, because even if the threat of force is not explicit, it's implicit up to this point. >> that's the big diplomatic question right now. but once they decide, if we get past the weeks of negotiations you're talking about, how long does it take to actually go in and gain control of the weapons and facilities. >> the bulk of it will happen quickly. there are chemical weapons certificates thought the world. they can be assembled. it will be clear very early on if the syrians will bring them to the sites of where these weapons are. it could drag on over time but there will be early indications i think, in the course of a month or two, that we will see if syria is in fact serious. but again that assumes
overcoming some diplomatic rules in the u.n. >> a month or two. i'm asking you because we are in sort of day to day mode here thinking about what might happen but to pursue this would be a question of now months. >> for the weapons inspectors to get on the ground and again getting a serious handle on the control of the weapons and what the inventories are, it would take that long. but there would be early indications about whether bashar al-assad is serious about this so the diplomats and the politicians will get appear early indication of just if this is really going to work out. >> charles duelfer thanks again. >> thank you. >> ifill: we return to another troubled spot in the middle east: egypt. two months ago, the army deposed the country's islamist president, the muslim brotherhood's mohammed morsi. he was elected after the heady 2011 uprising that overthrew president hosni mubarak.
now egypt's secular forces have turned the tables. but does this mean more democracy for egypt, or a return to the past? our chief foreign affairs correspondent margaret warner reports from cairo. >> the chamber of the upper house of parliament, a committee rewriting egypt's constitution for the second time in as many years, con veebd at the initial session on sunday. it was an over-50 cloud of statesmen clerics, business leaders and generals and one figure, a young man wearing a t-shirt no one had heard of. he was mahmoud batter, a leader of the rebel movement that led a petition against mohammed morsi and his muslim brotherhood-led government, triggering nationwide protest on june 30. two days later on july 3, the
army chief appeared on television to say egypt's armed forces had removed the first democratically elected leader in the country's history. one of the fellow co-founders, mack meuld al-faka has no apologies for returning to the mill tore to out oust the president he voted for, who came to believe he was serving the islamist agenda, not egypt. >> actually all of the co-founders votedded for him. >> so you felt betrayed? >> the brotherhood and their ambassador and mohammed morsi betrayed us, betrayed the egyptian people. eeven betrayed his responsibility. >> general alsisi gave that responsibility to an interim civilian-led government headed by judge monsieur, opposing a state of emergency, alsisi promised the short-term government would move briskly
down a road map to ensure civilian democracy within nine months. >> in many corners of this ancient city capital of the arab's world's most populist country, we found people feel safer. many think the government is only a facade and the real power lies with general al-sisi. but they seem fine with that for now. >> we found public relations manager ayman fahrad sitting in a cafe. >> who do you think is running the country right now? >> now -- the general rule. >> general alsisi's rule. >> protecting the muslim brotherhood and i would like to salute him. >> when i asked who was running the country you said president monsieur but you were laughing. why were you laughing. >> i feel like you know the answer. >> the interim government has one job that can't wait nine
months. to start rebuilding an economy battered by the constant strife since the 2011 up rising that toppled long time ruler hosni mubarak. the streets are empty of tourists and foreign investors, the country's most visitd site, the pyramids, now a ghost time. the interim government is surviving on cash infusions from the gulf. yet nor difficult will be rebuilding the trust between two groups of egyptians who united in the revolution of 2011 but couldn't agree on anything after that. in one camp, more secular minded egyptians like this former parliamentarian. in her apartment in the upscale district, she insisted morsi's oust was not a queue but a popular impeachment. >> what you saw was a struggle from the soul of egypt, a society divided, one that wanted
a real civil society and the other one that wanted a theo trattic society. >> she said general alsisi appeared like a breath of hope. >> he is looked upon as a national savior. >> but across town in suburban new cairo at a protest that was called on short notice, computer science professor mohammed saw no heros. >> democracy doesn't come on tanks. democracy comes through the ballot box. here to protect against the regime and i'm sure you know of the killing and so forth -- >> the killing started even before morsi's removal amidst the bloody climax august 14 when the police moved in to disperse two brotherhood sit ins in cairo. hundreds of protesters were killed that day. what may seem surprising is that many self styled liberals tee
fend the take over and the crock down that followed. >> object to the democracy egypt itself. >> >> a leading secular voice in the 2011 revolution said the military intervention and crack down prevented civil war. >> do you consider yourself a liberal? >> in a way, yes. socially liberal. >> so do you think there's anything inconsistent in being a liberal and yet now so many liberals support this -- the interim government in which the most powerful figure is general alsisi. >> egyptians would have guns themselves and there would have been a real massacre. >> there are a few, very few, liberal voices who have rayed objections to the military' takeover. >> many people in egypt now believe that the solution is with the military, and this is a problem, at least for me. >> ahmed maher heads the april 6
movement which spearheaded the 2011 uprising. >> the brotherhood breached power by the ballot box. so we could, even if not immediately, we could have removed him that way. we made many mistakes but the return to the military rule again is very harmful. using the military now will mean they could depose any president in the future. >> the oust was referred to as a queue. he has been paying the price, ruled under state investigation, shunned by family and friends, and publicly vilified by egypt's media which has fallen in line behind general alsisi. >> the people that are critical or have misgivings regarding the role of the military, they are attacked viciously in the streets and the media. >> who is running the country right now? >> do you want to put me in jail
or what? i think that, yes, the military establishment has a large role in government, even when morsi was there. >> do you see it in danger. >> you are accusing me that i'm a traitor and an agent, that i am being paid to prevent chaos in egypt. this indicates that our voice is annoying to them. >> well what is incredibly successful is a smear campaign against the few dissenting voices that criticize the military and the police. >> the country director for human rights watch says voices like mahers can't get on tv any longer in egypt. >> that smear campaign has shown the power of the media. this station on tv was one of the voices for independent, you know, hosting independent
voices, hosting the activist who first made april 2011 happen. >> i think it shows how it has narrowed, more than narrowed, it has disappeared, the dissent. there were a lot of options in 2011 and 2012 and all of that is being rolled back now because there's only a security response not a political response. >> we took the tough charge that after the 2011 revolution, it's under mined by the government via habib el-beem. >> i don't think it's possible for anyone to return to the way it was after april 25. nobody can describe the state egypt is in right now as being the perfect state of affairs. it's an imperfect situation but it is one for which i progress forward or we can go backwards. >> how confident are you that at
the end of this time frame, which comes up in april, that there will be have been a full restoration of democracy and that the military will step back? >> i'm quite confident and quite optimistic about this process being completed by april. but it's something that makes me relax. but we have to learn from the last couple of years and compromise a little bit as long as -- >> ass egyptians watch the proceedings each day they're failing to compromise is becoming vivid and the bloodshed under mubarak the past three years, the military government that followed and the brother hood but a few blocks away university professor mohammed ibrahim, out shopping with her young daughter said polarization, not the spirit of compromise affects egypt now. >> there are two groups.
if you are not with me you are opposite of me and there's no logic in when we speak with each other. i don't listen to. >> what will it take to change that? >> we will take much more time in order to be like american people, like english people, to be democratic from inside. >> time egypt today may not have. >> we will have more reporting from margaret this week including tomorrow. her interview with egypt's prime minister. >> woodruff: now, amid civil war in syria, and talk of involvement by the u.s., we get another take on war and its impact, through the lens of a camera. jeff is back with our look. >> brown: a marine in afghanistan has a close call with taliban fighters. a republican militiawoman training on the beach outside barcelona in the spanish civil war. a bosnian soldier stands on a
mass grave outside his destroyed home. a class photo of young children, many later killed in argentina's "dirty war." and so familiar now: a jet crashing into the world trade center on september 11, 2001. images from 165 years of war, broadly defined to capture what happens before, during, and after battle, in combat, and on the home front, part of a wide- ranging exhibition, now at washington's corcoran gallery of art. it was developed and opened at the houston museum of fine arts by curator anne tucker. >> there was a human story to be told through the eyes of photographers about the full aspect of war. when people talked about war photography, it was either fighting or death, and we just thought there was a much greater story, and we wanted to open the discussion up.
>> brown: many famous images are here, and there are moments of world-shattering drama, like this one taken from a japanese plane. >> the torpedoes going into pearl harbor. i still cry when i see that picture. >> brown: you see it from above. >> you see the torpedoes going into battleship row, and you think about the people sitting on their bunks, writing a letter home, getting dressed for church, and they're going to die. then there are pictures that feature an individual, and you grieve for that individual or you wonder what happened to them.
you see that picture by carolyn cole of a soldier waiting to go to battle with all of his war paint, and you can't help but wonder, did he survive, you know? is he home? is he okay? >> brown: the exhibition is organized by themes that cross through wars and time, including recruitment, seen through the eyes of australians heading off for battle during world war i, captured by josiah barnes; executions, a shirt worn by mexican emperor maximilian during his execution in 1867, a photo by francois aubert; and homecoming and memorials. in "bedrooms for the fallen," for example, ashley gilbertson captures the childhood rooms of american soldiers killed in iraq and afghanistan-- portraits of lives that are no more. anne tucker says she and her team saw patterns to wars and their portrayal. >> the patterns were, for instance, photographs of women weeping on a grave.
we only have one in the exhibition, but we saw hundreds. somebody in a uniform with a prothesis. there's only one in the exhibition, but we saw hundreds. people in military formation. people in transport. we began to look at these recurring types of pictures and realize these were the stages of war. >> brown: another theme: waiting, the in-between moments before the battle begins, as in this photograph of italian women ambulance drivers knitting. >> it is momentary calm, because the fatality rate for these women was very high. our reason for putting it in the exhibition is precisely to show those quiet moments and to show these essentially heroic women who are civilians or military who are part of the story.
>> brown: photojournalist louie palu has covered the war in afghanistan since 2006. his portrait of marine gunnery sargent carlos "o.j." orujela was taken after a muddy patrol in 125 degree heat through an area filled with i.e.d.'s. it became a signature image for the exhibition. >> i'd go out every day with these marines, and instead of taking photographs of them on patrol, which i'd been doing for years, i would get to know them and talk to them. i wanted to know them so that i could photograph them and pass on that experience to the viewers. i really wanted a photograph that confronted you and brought you to task to understand the psychology of what the experience of war is. >> brown: will michels, exhibit co-curator and collections photographer at the houston museum of fine arts, says works like palu's are a mirror on to the subject and the photographer. >> i'm a big believer that especially with many of the
portraits, it's a double portrait. it's a portrait just as much about the person in the picture as the photographer his or her self. it's the photographers' choices that made the portrait as powerful as it is. the better the portrait, the more universal it becomes. it becomes every soldier. it becomes not a specific one. it becomes the whole experience. >> brown: some of the images here are horrific. a sign at the entrance warning viewers is a reminder. the portrayal of dead bodies and other images have often been difficult for the public, the news media-- including our program-- and for government officials. another fraught issue in the history of war photography: the sheer beauty of images that portray death and horror, the balancing of documentation, and aesthetics.
tucker explains her approach. >> if the beauty brings someone to engage with a picture, then it's essential. and so you feel the push-pull to the aesthetics and the horror, and that war within yourself is fruitful to your thinking more about the picture. >> brown: the exhibition offers visitors the chance to share their own reactions in a reflection room, part of the continuing exchange among warriors, photographers, and viewers capturing the horror, beauty, boredom, bravery, and so much more of war. came to be on our upbeat page. >> woodruff: finally tonight, a look ahead at the president's task tonight, for that we're joined by two newshour regulars, syndicated columnist mark shields and new york times columnist david brooks.
>> so, david, what have you looking for tonight? >> i feel so sorry for the speechwriters much this is like a nightmare for them. there are war speeches they could give, there are peace speeches they can give. this is somewhere in the middle here. it's we're sort of ambivalently supporting the russian proposal that we may not be supporting, so i guess what he can do is two thingses, one lay out the case where why we care and why we should be involved in any way with syria and with the chemical weapons and, second, some broader image of the region, of what our grand strategy is in the east. so he's not going to discuss strong policy. >> mark? >> gwen, i think it's a complicated speech made more complicated by recent events. i still think the president has to make the case on why military action he felt was necessary and imperative in this case and why the threat of military action
has in fact changed the dynamic and led to a diplomatic. but on the diplomatic, there's both skepticism and relief. with skepticism, it's how long the process will go, if it's athingtic, is if this is some sort of a shell game and are we going to get rid of the weapons and the most complicated thing is the rhetoric of the president's supporters, including senator reed, and it's a comparison of the side to hitler and if it is like hitler and using poison gas on his own people is it in the best interest or even decent interest of human kind to keep in in power, this process so i ink it's a complicated speech the president has to give. >> do you think that the possibility of a diplomatic solution here makes it harder to sell a military strike? >> oh, yes.
there's no question. i think whatever hope -- i have always been skeptical of the idea that congress was going to pass a resolution in support of this because the country is still overwhelmingly against it. when there's a diplomatic option then the chances fall to near zero so i think it makes that case harder. i still think he has to make this case in case this diplomatic solution falls apart. the other thing is that he has to establish some credibility. he has had a horrible two weeks, like he can't look ahead or has looked inept or looked weak. so some projection of where we're headed and i am still the commander-in-chief and some of that you can trust me, i have credibility and power here, that is more important than any substantive thing that he said. >> there are two audiences, the geopolitical audience, the world and the domestic. who does he speak to primarily tonight? >> do the domestic audience and i think he has to be reassuring on the steps we're taking, where it takes us from here.
there has to be a confidence and the a sense of can people understand, ok, now i know where we are and now i know what is necessary and has to be done. i just think that has been missing. there's been a certain ad hoc quality to this policy up to now and i think it's absolutely imperative that the president address the nation at a time he requested lay that out specifically so people walk away not only understand what we're doing with the national center and securing some sense of peace. i think a negotiated settlement has to be part of the president's delivery tonight that this man is not going to be in power inperpetuity. >> and he can't claim to have reached the finish line. >> not at all. >> he can say, we comp mid, done. >> two weeks ago putin was denying that syria had used them, that they had them or anything of the sort. and now -- >> it's central. >> exactly. now the russians say we will give them up and put them under
international control. so in that sense there's a process. >> on the ad hoc point did you it matter if people come away believing oh, the president had a diplomatic idea in mind all along or whether they think this just came up at the last minute? >> it would matter if he could per situationively say this is all a master plan and i have been superconfident -- but i don't think that will be the kies. i have never seen a president pretend to be less competent than he is. if he he has been pretending he is doing an outstanding job. >> i think showing strength, standing up and taking a stand has lent to the diplomatic process anyway and i think that is a legitimate case to make, not that this is part of a master plan that we hatched at camp david just amp memorial day. if it was, we're in trouble. >> do youy with david the president is basically backed into a corner on this? >> i think that the president may have been given a great break by this. i really do. i think that john kerry deserves
credit. he kept -- he kept the channels open with the russians. he has been tireless. and this week he goes to geneva and we will find out, you know, we will find if trust is verified. >> and if syria goes to the back pages the entire country will breathe a sigh of relief especially the president. >> david brooks, mark shields. we will see you both later tonight. >> thank you. >> again the major developments of the day, president obama pressed for both diplomatic and military action on syria in the run up to his address to the nation this evening. and wall street rallied on signs of tensions overseera's chemical weapons might ease. the dow gained 128 points. >> just as we have changed our look on our, we have changed our look online. we have a fresh approach to tracking the most important stories of the day as they unfold. you can find
you can find this new blog on our home page. and there, be sure to watch a live stream of the president's address. all that and more is on our web site, >> ifill: and that's the newshour for now. but we'll be back again at 9 pm eastern, to bring you special coverage of president obama's address to the nation on syria. i'm gwen ifill. >> woodruff: and i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you online, and again here tomorrow evening. on behalf of all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you, and good night. newshour has been provided by: >> bnsf railway. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century.
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solutions. we offer solutions in a wide range of industries. what can we do for you? >> and now, "bbc world news." abc world news america" reporting from washington. ." "bbc world news america the fate of a russian proposal to stop military action and serious unclear as the president prepares to address the nation. we are inside of syria where it is reported that the army is stepping up its bombardment of rebel held areas. has been some fairly bitter fighting in this particular area over the past four or five days. there has been heavy shelling. >> apple